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9. Rypin.

Mentioned in the written sources as early as in 1065, Rypin is one the Polish oldest towns. Initially the seat of  a Mazovian castellany, from the 14th century the seat of starosty. As a result of the invasions of the Lithuanians (1323) and the Teutonic Knights (1329) the original town (presently the village of Starorypin) suffered severe damage and lost much of its population. The new town was founded on the hill on the Rypienica River. In 1365 Duke of Dobrzyń Władysław Garbaty (Ladislaus the Hunchback) renewed the town's privileges. The 14th c. saw the construction of three churches and the town walls with two towers.In 1780 the chapel of St Barbara was built on the site of the church of St Wojciech. Rypin shared the fate of the entire Dobrzyń Land. During the II World War the Nazis imprisoned, tortured and ruthlessly murdered hundreds of teachers, clergymen, landowners, office workers, craftsmen and farmers denounced by their German neighbours. The entire Jewish population was exterminated. Nevertheless, the risk of death did not prevent the local patriots from organising the Union of Armed Struggle in spring 1940, later transformed into the Home Army. After the Germans retreated, the security service created by  the Polish Workers' Party (carrying out  Stalin's orders) arrested activists connected with the Polish government-in-exile seated in London. Without a trial they were sent to concentration camps in Siberia or put to prison in Poland. In return, Home Army members engaged in subversive warfare. Today, with the population of 17 thousand, the town (the capital of the district) boasts a wide range of schools and small business. Every year Rypin Agra fair with accompanying events attract  legions of participants and viewers. The highlights include: the Gothic Church of Holy Trinity (1355) with neo-Gothic gables and Rococo interior, the Chapel of St Barbara, Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (20th c.) with giant stained-glass windows (commissioned from local artists), the Neo-Gothic Protestant church (1888) with elaborate polychrome decorations. Museum of the Dobrzyń Land in the Dom Kaźni (Torture House) features a number of  temporary exhibitions alongside permanent  archeological and historical ones. 

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